How to Irish Crochet
by Ann Reillet
Irish crochet is about texture and artistry. The intricate motifs and picot netting create an illusion of flowers caught in a spider’s web. At its finest, it is elegant and timeless.
A single motif, in its complexity, may take a few minutes or several days to make. Many are needed for even the smallest project. For this reason, it’s labor intensive. One option is to combine sections with fine fabric as insertion lace, like the dress shown above.
- To learn insertion techniques, see Lauren’s tutorial here: http://wearinghistoryblog.com/2012/04/tutorial-attaching-laces-to-each-other-gathering-lace/ and/or, see Laurie’s tutorial here: http://sewnso.blogspot.com/2011/06/little-lace-insertion-tute.html
- For a technical analysis of the skirt (shown above) see: https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2015/08/31/technical-analysis-of-vintage-irish-crochet-skirt/
Hook Method – Irish Crochet, an Eighteenth Century Craft
The method of Irish Crochet described in this tutorial uses a hook, rather than a needle, to create the ground. Historically, this type of crochet was known as early as 1743 when the Royal Dublin Society awarded prizes for it. Over the years, workers expanded on these teachings to create the richly sculpted texture of the motifs we see today; many resemble Venetian Gros Point, a needlework technique that dates back to the early 17th century in Italy; both are reminiscent of floral marble carvings of the Renaissance period.
- Amer Fort Fresco Flower Pattern Shown Here: https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2014/08/25/irish-crochet-motif-pattern-amer-fort-fresco/
Needle Method – Venetian Point Lace
You can use a needle to create the background net (“ground”) or combination of both crochet and point lace. If you’re interested in learning the needle method, see Lorelei Halley’s Point de Gaze tutorial on how to make the “Two Twist Whipped English Stitch” here: http://www.lynxlace.com/StitchesofPointdeGaze.html For further study, see Priscilla Needlework Book ca. 1898. This book can be viewed online free at Antique Pattern Library in the cut work section of their catalog.
Another artist to look into is, Catherine Barley. She creates numerous types of point lace. I especially love her Venetian Gros Point motifs. Even a cursory observation shows that by using a needle, you can employ much smaller thread and achieve results that are daintier, perhaps more elegant, than crochet alone.
To see Catherine’s outstanding workmanship, visit:
Helpful to Know.
Assuming you already know how to crochet and understand basic techniques; perhaps made a doily and worked with thread? If not, thread sizes are explained herein, but if you’re just learning how to crochet, additional help might be necessary. You don’t need to be an expert to learn Irish Crochet, however, it’s helpful to know a few techniques that are involved like, Cords, Padding, and Clones Knot
Padding Cord or “packing cord” is basically a technique that creates thickness within the motif or perimeter outline. Instead of making a chain and crocheting over the chain, you use several strands (usually 4) of a thicker thread and crochet over the thickness of the thread. You can use the same thread that you’re working with or something larger and less expensive. Sometimes I use size 10 thread for padding cord. By using a larger thread, it takes less thread to create bulk and because it’s hidden it doesn’t have to be of fine quality. However, it may show through a bit so it should be roughly the same color.
In the illustration, below, only one cord is used; probably a size 3. The use of one heavy cord verses several thinner strands results in a flatter, less rigid motif.
To make the cinquefoil below: wrap size 3 thread 3x around the handle of a 9.00mm hook, slide off, through center and holding circle, insert #8 1.50mm hook and draw up a loop of size 8 perle thread, yo, sc to secure, 20 sc in ring, join to back loop of beg st, drop the size 3 (but do not cut), sc in each back loop adding 1 extra sc every 4th (=25 sc), join to back loop of beg st, pick up size 3 padding cord, and work into next back loop over cord, now, just over the cord, *work sc-2hdc-2dc-picot-2dc-picot-2dc-picot-2dc-2hdc-sc, sc in same st on ring, sc in back loops of next 4 sts, on the 5th, drop pad, sc in back loop, pick up cord, *repeat around for 5 petals and join, then end, break thread and weave in tails.
POINT LACE CORD
To learn how to crochet Romanian Point Lace Cord, check out Wendy Harbaugh’s tutorial on youtube. The written instructions are as follows: ch 2, sc in 2nd ch from hook. Notice the single horizontal bar that is formed from the sc just made. It is located on the side closest to you. Insert hook down into bar and without yarning over, but opposite of the normal yo motion, hook over the yarn and simply pull the thread through, now wrap the thread around the hook as usual and draw through all loops on hook. This alternating method of over and under is repeated throughout the process. However, only the first stitch contains one bar, all subsequent stitches contain two. As the cord is made, the lower end is rotated because of the placement of the stitch being used along the side. If it helps, as a tip, I find it easier to keep the worked loops high on the hook away from the tapered end before drawing through. If you crochet it too tightly, it becomes difficult to work with. I also pull and stretch the cord when finished to increase the length and you can always block it if you need it to take on a specific shape.
PADDING with Chain – Vine Motif
PADDING without Chain – Center Rings Within Motifs
It’s also helpful to understand how padding is used within the motifs of Irish Crochet. To make a padded ring, experiment by wrapping the thread 10 times around the handle of a J/10 (6.00MM) aluminum hook, slide it off, hold in place, insert smaller steel hook, pull up a loop, yo and draw through all loops to secure, then sc over the thickness of the wrapped cord including the cut end or “tail”; usually about 16-24 sc depending how tight you crochet. Once the circle is filled with sc, trim tail if necessary and join with a sl st to the 1st sc. As you continue making the motif, add padding again, in the form of 1 long cut strand folded in half then folded again, using the solid end to secure, then crochet over all the strands and the area of the motif you want to pad similar to crocheting over a tail to tuck it in while you’re working. The result is 3-dimensional, which adds texture to the motif and gives the motif a sturdy, finished look.
Not to scare you, but, in vintage Irish Crochet books, using size 80 thread and a 0.4mm hook, the instructions say to wrap the thread around a matchstick. Yikes! Perhaps something to work forward to.
To make larger padded circles, wrap the thread twenty (20) times around the handle of larger hook such as J/10 6.00mm, insert smaller hook, such as a #12 (1.00mm), pull the thread through, sc, continue filling circle with sc. These can be used as decorations around the design or as the center for a flower; keeping count of the number of sts used, divide the proposed attachment, such as 5 petals by the total, gives you an idea of how far to space apart loops or sts in next round to achieve results.
PADDING – Padding Within Motifs
Here’s a free padded leaf pattern: https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2014/02/13/irish-crochet-motif-leaf/
Once you’re comfortable with padding, check out Amanda’s 2 m ( 6.5 feet) 4-strand padding in her Vine Leaf video tutorial here: https://youtu.be/Un-gpZ0EAZ4
CLONES KNOT: A Clones Knot is similar to a Bullion Stitch or embroidery’s French Knot in that it is grouped stitches. There are online videos to help master the clones knot. If it’s too difficult, you can use a standard picot (ch 4, sc in the 4th ch from hook) to create decorations along the netted background. It’s best to practice the clones knot to perfection; and it may take a lot of practice, but it’s an important stitch to learn for Irish Crochet. It’s neater and bulkier than the picot, making it well worth the effort of learning.
Here you see the difference between the two in this Venetian net with picot rows on the bottom and clones knot atop.
Tip: Steel hooks with long barrels and short tapered ends work best. If it has a thumb tab, that is fine. If you find a hook that makes clones knotting easy, label it for this specific use.
CLONES KNOT (Spin the Hook Method) To make a clones knot, practice as follows. When practicing, use whatever thread and hook size you’re comfortable with, but the thinner the thread, the nicer it will look:
(Starting chain) slip knot, ch 5
(Set up) Looking at the loop that is on the hook from the 5th ch, push that loop up onto the barrel of the hook, away from the tapered end, but not on the narrow thumb tab. Looking at your thread feeding hand, widen your thread holding stance and keep the thread feed taut. Looking back at your hook holding hand, slide the thumb and index finger down to the base of the hook, gently gripping it with your thumb and index finger in an oh, so very tea party manner.
(Now begin) *Hook under thread, catching thread and spin the hook 360 degrees horizontally (anti-clockwise if right-handed). Make sure the thread that moves onto the hook comes to a rest on the barrel next to the starting loop that was already on the hook. Having pivoted the hook, working from the opposite side now, mirror what you just did by hooking under the thread, catching a thread and rotating back 360 degrees to starting point. The 3rd loop should also rest on the barrel next to the two preceding loops. *Repeat. Counting the total times you spin, when you reach six (6) and you’re back to the starting normal crochet forward position, hold the bottom of those loops by the beginning chain with your thread feeding hand (mainly the thumb and index finger) yarn over bringing your hook holding hand back into normal position, ease the loops onto the narrow tapered end of the hook and pull through all the loops on the hook at once. Quickly ch 1 to hold the sts in place.
(Finish off) Now, looking back at this disaster, er I mean creation, there is the ch-1 you just made and the clone’s knot, followed by the chain on the opposite side: you can either: sl st or sc in the 1st ch on that opposite side, closest to the clones knot, OR you can sl st or sc across the clones knot to work under the beginning chain; as always, there are variations, but this last stitch is important because it hugs the knot to form a tighter sphere and secures the shape.
(Repeat) Ch 5 and make another clones knot. In the practice piece; vary the number of times you spin to see the differences between larger and smaller knots. Also, vary the placement of the stitch used to secure the knot so you can see the difference and find your preferred method. Finally, try to create 5 or 10 identical knots because consistency is really what we’re after.
Here’s a free clones knot flower pattern: https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2014/08/10/irish-crochet-flower-motif-chart-pattern/
CLONES KNOT (In a Chain) Another way to create a Clone’s Knot is to chain 4, *yo, insert hook in 3rd ch from hook, pull up a thread, *repeat twice then yo and draw thru all loops on the hook, finish with a sl st in next/last ch and resume work. This method is similar to the one described in vintage books of the early 20th century.
CLONES KNOT (Over a Chain) In the old works, the Clone’s Knot is made over the chain rather than into a particular chain, so using this method, ch about 6, yo, insert hook under the ch, pull up loop, then yo again from the top, alternating bottom/top as many times (I think 6 or 8 is plenty), then yo and draw through all loops on the hook. sl st in st where the ch originated and resume work.
Personally, I find the spinning the hook technique easiest, but encourage everyone to experiment and find their preferred method. There’s really no right way or wrong way to make knots only what works for you.
Finally, I did come up with a “cheat” so to speak, a popcorn made into a ch. Here’s that CLONES KNOT (Alternative): https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2015/10/19/clones-knot-alternative/
THREAD SIZES: Various sizes of thread are employed in making Irish Crochet. Traditional vintage sizes range from 60-110, which in modern crochet terms are defined as tatting thread; all of which use a 0.6mm #14 hook and smaller (#18). For beginners: Larger threads (size 3, 5 and 10) should be used for padding, thinner threads (20+) for motifs and the thinnest (30+) for netting.
If you’ve only worked with yarn, it’s a good idea to start with a large size 0 steel hook and sock yarn to make your first motif, as you get comfortable with the steel hooks, decrease the sock yarn to size 3 thread, then 5, then 10 (with a size 7 steel hook). The idea is to decrease gradually and build confidence.
Thread size is a confusing aspect of crochet. For instance, the lustrous nondivisible DMC perle #8 is similar to US size 20. Yet, the hand over-dyed 3 twist Valdani #8 is similar to US size 30. Oren Bayan #60 is similar to US size 40. I use US size 20 or 30 in the Coat’s & Clark Brand of “Aunt Lydia’s Fine Crochet Thread” on a spool containing at least 400 yds to crochet motifs and size 40 for netting. If I’m working on a large project, I use the cone thread, US Size 20 on a cone containing 2400 yds.
The thinner the thread, the nicer it will look, but you want it to be strong and durable (6-strand). Ideally, DMC Cordonnet Special No. 80 with a .5 or .4mm hook is best... and a pair of magnifying glasses.
Tip: When working with sharp pointed hooks, wrap the index finger at the top knuckle in First Aid tape to avoid injury.
Consistency is Key
As with all crochet projects, consistent stitch work and patterned arrangement of motifs net the best-finished results. If the stitches are loose or the arrangement haphazard, the piece loses its sense of balance. This applies to the netted background as well. Some Irish patterns are worked in sections that are “fenced in” or offset with cord; this is where you want to place motifs that go well together. Other patterns use only a few motifs, like all one type of flower with leaves and vines. Still, others are an eclectic mix of motifs and this is probably the hardest to design without appearing too busy. Always experiment with the pattern of the layout, viewing it from different angles or rearranging the motifs until you have a design that looks good to you.
If using colored threads, consider a small palette of not more than 3 or 4 colors that combine well and complement one another; like red and brown or beige and white or pink, brown and white. Look at paintings, photography, fashion ensembles, vintage pieces like Jacobean, Victorian, Edwardian, Art Nouveau, Art Deco. Study the color schemes and identify the palettes that appeal to you.
In the example (left), the master fiber artist Olga Naumova – Mikno who designs under the name/trademark “Helga Irland” uses only a few colors closely related on the color wheel. The result is rich and elegant. I think of how lovely this collar would look on a silk blouse or sweater.
Skill Level Increases with Practice
My first attempt at Irish Crochet was a baby bib… best to start small. For the first project, I used only size 10 thread. All of my instructions came from vintage sources; it was very confusing. That is why I created this tutorial. Over the past few years, I’ve completed several Irish Crochet projects, I’m nowhere near Galina “Asia” Verten, but my skill level continues to improve and yours can too!
In Asia‘s example, a variety of color and motifs are used ranging from vine work, flowers, paisleys and leaves. The texture is created with padding and Romanian point lace cords. Thread is comparable to DMC Cebelia in US size 20 or 30 (Euro size 10 or 12). The pattern is in the arrangement of the motifs and the colors used throughout the design. The plain mosaic fill draws the eye toward the motifs. It’s a Jacobean style; a true masterpiece by a most talented artist. See more of Asia’s designs here: http://youtu.be/hwutAqMC6lA
Ann’s Beginner Tutorial
1. Study & learn all you can about Irish Crochet from many sources. Irish Crochet is a free-form technique; there are no rules per se, only variations to achieve similar results. Whether in the layout or netting, with or without a pattern, each piece is truly unique.
2. Build up a supply of padded motifs. For beginners, motifs should be crocheted in a minimum thread size of 10 (preferably 20) with a size 7 or higher steel hook. Start with an Irish Rose and Venetian Leaf, then branch out; palm leaves, stars, oak leaves, grape vines. The possibilities are endless. As you work on the motifs, try to visualize a layout or design that will highlight the work. The idea is to use your motifs in an Irish Crochet pattern, so the arrangement that you choose is key to the aesthetic nature of the finished piece.
While this tutorial is for beginners, I encourage you to experiment, especially as you gain experience, employ smaller finer thread; even colored threads. Irish Crochet is traditionally a white work, but it looks great in color, and scarfs can be done in lace and sport weight yarn: (See Nicky Epstein’s Irish scarf patterns at Caron yarn.)
(Pomegranate shown in #80 and #30 thread.) Pomegranate Pattern shown here: https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2015/01/01/irish-crochet-pattern-pomegranate-motif/
Tip: When it comes to pattern arrangement, balancing motifs is key. To create a mirror effect, make at least two of each motif and don’t forget vines and leaves. If using colors, some thread companies such as Valdani and Precesia offer color palettes or samplers that go together.
Here’s a free floral vine motif pattern: https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2014/02/24/free-irish-crochet-pattern-escape-flower-motif/
Also, if you scroll up to the top of this page and click the HOME tab, there are several other motif patterns posted here.
- Prepare a workspace consisting of:
- [A] Cambric (a finely woven cotton cloth). A solid color is easier on the eyes; in Ireland they use the emerald green cloth. I use white flour sackcloth; it’s lint-free and durable.
- [B] Chalk or non-permanent sewing pencils for outlining patterns on the cloth. Tip: Don’t use ink, otherwise you can’t reuse the cloth. Chalk washes out, but if you prefer, you can use sewing thread to baste the outline using a temporary running stitch.
- [C] Optional: Thin cardboard such as watercolor paper for stabilizing the cloth.
- [D] Foam pad or styrofoam that is thick enough to absorb at least 1 3/8″ sewing pins.
- [E] Sewing pins with pearl or round tops which are used to secure the motifs and border while the net is being made. These are jostled about while making the net so you need something that can be easily plucked out and repositioned.
- [F] I also use office supply type binder clamps and paper clips to secure the cloth to the paper and sewing pins to secure that to the pad. I use pins to secure the border and motifs. Sometimes, I baste (hand sew) the border, but never the motifs. So, I also use a sewing needle and sewing thread in a contrasting color for basting / temporarily tacking crochet work to the cloth.
Workplace Alternatives: A cylinder or bobbin pillow could be used for narrow insertion type pieces. Other types of platforms include non-pinning options where you use just the cloth and baste the motifs and border. I don’t use this method because it requires a lot of hand sewing and it feels less secure to me than the pinning method. I find that I have more control over the layout of the netting when it’s pinned down. But I encourage you to try various techniques in order to find your individual preference.
You can read more about the workspace here: https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2013/06/09/irish-crochet-board-creating-a-workspace/
4. Decide what you’re going to make. I recommend starting with a small item, not larger than a placemat. Suggestions: Bib, bonnet, collar, cuffs, coasters, corner piece for napkins or placemats, etc… Have a sketch or photograph of the ideal piece aforehand in order to start with the end in mind and work toward that achievement.
5. Pencil or chalk the outline onto cambric (don’t use permanent ink otherwise you can’t re-use the cloth). Trace an actual item, such as a bib or collar or create your own design. For clothing, trace the outline of a cut-out paper sewing pattern. The idea here is: This is your final sketch; the shape your garment will be in the end so take care to draw the pattern exact. Historically, the outline was hand sewn on cloth with a running stitch.
6. Crochet a chain that is exactly long enough to cover the outline. Try not to pull it taut, but lay with consistent tension. Make sure the chain is flat as you pin it on the outline so it doesn’t become twisted. If you’re following an example piece, some have cord in the outline and that’s fine if you want greater thickness in the edge. Either method works cord or chain and pad can always be added over the chain as an edging in the final round.
Pin the border in place and/or sew it down with a temporary basting stitch along the penciled outline on the cloth using a colored thread that contrasts with the crochet thread. Slip stitch or sew the ends of the border chain together to join like a necklace.
The idea is that you want the border to be complete and stay in place while making the net. I’ve done both methods, sewing and pinning. I find the pinning method to be much faster and easier.
7. Arrange your motifs so they fit inside the border in a pattern that is pleasing to you. I recommend sewing in the tails and snipping the ends of the motifs to keep the work area clean while you’re making the netted background. Iron the motifs first. You can gum and block them now or later, if you want to do that now see step 13.
8. TURN the motifs over so they are facing down and pin in place, pushing the pins all the way down so they’re not in the way. The reason for turning the motifs over is so it will look like the netting is coming from behind and pushing the motifs forward, thus improving the finished look.
Pinning the motifs is quicker and easier than sewing them down, but you can sew them with a temporary basting stitch if you prefer. The idea is that you want the motifs to stay in place while you’re making the net.
Note: Depending on what your project is, exceptions and variations may occur. For instance, the Irish Chair Back (shown here), required no border chain to start the net, rather the netting began at the center and spiraled outward until a border could be added in the final round.
At the end of step 8, everything should be pinned down and secure to the padded workspace.
9. Relax for a moment and think of the number “7” or its mirror image. Start the netting in the lower corner of the largest open area (preferably at the very bottom of the border chain) because in the corner, you’ve already got 2 sides. Begin with a sl st on the horizontal “-” side of “7”. If you’re left-handed start on the left side; if you’re right-handed start on the right side. The sl st should be up 2 or 3 ch sps depending how tall you want the height of the square, ch 2 for width, hdc (or dc) on the lower side (vertical “|” horizontal bottom of “7”) of the border chain, ch 2, sk 2, hdc (or dc). Now you have 2 squares, keep going.
Join to Border:
When you get to the 2nd to the last space at the end of this first row, stop and think about the letter “F” (left-handed) [or the mirror image of a letter “F” if you’re right-handed]; instead of chaining 2 to the end, do a hdc (or dc) in the border chain that aligns with the top of this row. This keeps you in place, then chain up and repeat before changing directions for the next row.
Tip: Try to avoid chaining and slip stitching in the border, rather work a dc in the border to join. This avoids uneven borders because if you do sl st in the border, you usually have to continue slip stitching up the ch to obtain sp for the next mesh.
Join to Motifs:
As you work up to the motifs, insert your hook in the st where you want the join to be, sc, then continue with your chs and hdc (or dc), trying to keep your rows lined up as much as possible. You can sl st over the back of the motif to get to the other side or you can work the area in between, tie off and work the next area, whichever you prefer.
By starting with a simple square shaped net, you will quickly gain an understanding of how the background is applied. The hardest thing for some will be re-learning how to position your hands and hold your hook because with everything pinned in place, it limits your movement. Rather than bringing the work to you, you have to accommodate it. Try not to pull at the motifs, instead, turn the workspace 180 degrees, one row will feel natural and the next… awkward. Later on, maybe on the next project, you can experiment with doing a cluster stitch, picot trellis, bullion stitch or clones knot.
If you’d like to learn traditional netting, practice as follows:
Note: When filling, the net is usually done in a smaller thread size than the motifs, but when you’re learning for the first time and practicing something new, use whatever thread and hook size you’re comfortable with and don’t worry about your edges, just focus on the pattern of the stitch; that is what’s important. Remember that when you’re making the net, you already have a border pinned down so your edges join to that framework.
Use either a standard picot or clones knot:
Traditional Irish Trellis with Two Picots:
1st Row: ch 58 (a multiple of 7 + 2)
2nd Row: sc in the 2nd ch from hook, *ch 2, picot (ch 4, sc in 4th ch from hook), ch 3, picot, ch 2, sk 6, sc in the 7th ch, *repeat to end. Turn.
Note how wide the stitch is: 7 chains (2, 3, and 2) with two picots; that is why smaller (size 60+) thread is used.
3rd Row: *ch 2, picot, ch 3, picot, ch 2, sc in 2nd ch of prev 3 chs betw picots, *repeat to end. Turn.
Note: For this practice tutorial, there should always be eight (8) full trellis per row. The edges are not straight-straight, but rather triangular with the outer picots aligning to form a “straight edge.” These picots are where you would join to the border.
4th Row, etc. Repeat Row 3.
Basic Trellis with Single Picot:
1st Row: ch 26 (a multiple of 5 + 1)
2nd Row: sc in 2nd ch from hook *ch 5, sk 4 ch, sc in next ch *repeat across. Turn.
3rd Row: *ch 5, in 3rd ch of next ch 5 work sc-ch3-sc *repeat across. Turn.
4th Row: ch 1, sc in same *ch 5, sk picot, picot in 3rd ch of next ch 5 *repeat across. Turn.
To keep the edges straight, at end: ch 2, dc in the sc of last row’s 1st st.
After a dc ending: ch 2, picot in 3rd ch and continue pattern with ch 5, sk picot, picot in 3rd ch of next, etc.
Basic Trellis (no picot):
As Irish Net: Join to 3rd ch side border (from bottom), *ch 5, sk 3 chs (on bottom), sc in next, *repeat. At row’s end, join to opposite side with a ch 2, dc then ch up and repeat before changing direction for next row. Skip to 3rd Row instruction.
As practice: 1st Row: ch 27 (a multiple of 4 + 3)
2nd Row: sc in 6th ch from hook, *ch 5, sk 3 ch, sc in next *repeat across. Turn.
3rd Row: *ch 5, sc in next ch 5 sp *repeat across. Turn
4th Row, etc: Repeat row 3
Sewing Needle Netting:
As mentioned earlier, you can use a needle to create the background. Here is a demonstration posted to YouTube. In the video she is using a twisted stitch and working an octagon net freeform. https://youtu.be/eMQCnv7LZfs
Various forms of netting can be employed including patterned stitches and filet. Another option is to make fill-in pieces of net, especially if you have large open spaces. Similar to motifs, fill-ins are worked first and pinned or sewn on cambric. Additional netting joins these little islands together. The technique creates a mosaic look and transfers time spent making the ground with everything pinned down because it’s easier to crochet when the piece is free and you can hold it in your hand.
In this example, you can see that the artist has already joined the motifs with vine work and connected them to the border using padded Irish cord to enhance the edging. It’s a Venetian technique made by a world-renown expert. The fill-in pieces are then joined with the finishing net. Note the gray cloth and sewing pins securing the work. Pattern source: Duplet 119
See more of Miroslava Gorokhovich‘s designs here: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.407881239259004.82143.171750306205433&type=3
To start a fill-in: ch 5, sl st in 5th ch from hook to form ring, ch 3 (counts as dc), *ch 4, dc in ring, *repeat for 5 or 6 petal loops, join to 3rd ch of 1st dc, ch 3, and continue. As you tier up and outward, the ch 4 remains, but the spacing between dc decreases. You might do one round in the loops and in prev row’s dc, or put two dc in one loop. You can also quit the round direction, turn (with a ch3, ch 4) and work the reverse. The idea is to create a fill-in of fairly consistent size spacing, but less symmetry than a motif.
For the purposes herein, we won’t call this cheating. It’s actually another form of crochet from the French Guipure et a la Croix or fil pour dentelles; which in modern crochet terms translates to: motifs sewn on filet. In the Guipure technique, no pad is used. The open mesh filet net is made first then shaped and ironed in preparation for motifs, which are arranged atop the net and sewn to the surface. While this is not Irish Crochet in the traditional sense, it is still handmade and the results are beautiful and symmetric. Any open-work net can be used; like a six-sided polygon: From starting ch, sk 8, dc in 9th ch, *ch 5, sk 4, dc in next ch, *repeat across ending with a dc in last ch, ch 3 turn (counts as dc), ch 5, dc in 3rd ch of 5-ch sp.
Another type of sew-on-net is Applique Lace. In this technique, it is not even necessary to know how to crochet; you buy the netting as a fabric to produce a “Faux-Irish Crochet Style” using sewing techniques only. The fabric is basted or tacked with temporary fabric tape onto a working surface, then machined lace, braids or appliques, such as Venise Lace, are arranged atop to form a pattern. Motifs are secured with various stitches, usually overcasting, buttonhole or darning stitch with fine thread around the perimeter of the motif. Once secure, the back side of the net is cut away from these motifs. On the cut area, it’s best to have a heavily sewn outlined motif, braid, or edging opposite (top side). Fabric fray block also helps to maintain the structure of the netted fabric.
Tip: All crochet and some fabric has stretch to it, so it’s best to use strong and stretchy sewing thread, such as cotton or all-purpose. However, if your garment is made in silk thread, use a silk or nylon polyester sewing thread. The idea is that you want the sewing thread to have a similar consistency or stretch to the crochet thread.
Whether it’s Irish Crochet, French Guipure, Point Lace or Maltese Crochet Art everything traces its roots to Venetian Lace. This is where the oldest, earliest examples of decorated net are found, like the headdress of Beatrice d’Este Sforza, portrait, painted 1493. It’s my assumption that net originated in fishing communities for form and function and was eventually used in fashion as adornment and decoration. The Venetian technique uses connecting bars as fill or net. It is typically done with a needle rather than a hook, especially Sorrento bars. However, connection bars can be created with a crochet hook in the last round of the motif at the location where a join is desired: ch 4, sc in 2nd ch from hook and in next, sl st in motif. Joins are made at the tip’s end: ch 3, insert hook in joining bar, sc, ch 1, sc in 2nd ch from hook and in next, sl st in motif. The Venetian technique does not require a pad, but it’s imperative to have a pattern drawing in order to gauge the placement of joins.
Net as you go:
Lastly, in some petal flower patterns, the net can be made as the motifs are created. In this technique, two or three of the petals are made in one row with the remainder created in the next. Since Irish Crochet is usually done with a variety of motifs, this method works best for edgings where uniformity is desired.
Another “net as you go” technique is the French Bebe Crochet, which is typically done in very fine thread (size 60+). The technique is similar to making granny squares for afghans in that each motif is created in a geometric shape which can then be joined to another motif. The technique gives the finished result a patterned look. Many motifs that begin with one shape like a star, flower, circle or even square can be adjusted with netting around the perimeter to create an entirely different shape like an octagon, diamond, square, etc.
Here is an Illiana, New York pattern that combines French Bebe Crochet with the Guipure technique. It’s a wonderful pattern for learning both of these crochet techniques and the Crochet Cardigan No. 220 is so pretty and feminine.
Don’t feel you have to limit the netting to one type. Be creative! Many fine examples of Irish Crochet contain multiple nets in various sections of the garment, which, when joined together create a richer more appealing effect.
See photo (left) for an example.
10. As you make the net use pins to secure it in place. Finish the entire netted background in one sitting… just kidding. It will take a while. The netting is a sort of free-form technique that takes a little forethought as you go. For example, if you need to turn or come back, you might put 2 stitches in the same open mesh and then work down the side of it. And don’t worry, even the most mathematical mind will work themselves into a dead end. When this happens, tie off and create a new sl st or, since we’re working from the back side, sl st over the motif to get to the other side. Either method works, provided the motifs are facing down.
Tip: When netting across an open space unhindered by motifs, as in the very bottom (usually), the pattern of the net is set. However, as you work upward filling between motifs, it’s a good idea to have a sample of that lower grid; it’s measurements in order to maintain the consistency of the ground.
Here is a YouTube video in Russian, where you can watch Natalia Kotelnikova working an octagon net: http://youtu.be/CM9Xssjiqu8
In the video example, Natalia’s motifs and scrollwork are pinned face-down on solid white cotton cloth and pinning surface. She begins the section by joining with a sewing-in technique using a self-threading needle. Once the thread is secure, she starts the net with a sl st, ch 4, tr across, ch 4, sk 3, tr, working across until add’l fill can be added between.
11. Once the entire background is made, pull out the pins and/or basting thread and lift the piece off as one garment. Weave in tails.
Tip: Avoid snipping the work by cutting the basting thread from the back side of the cambric.
12. Create a seam or edging by working a row of sc around the border or add padding or a decorative trim.
13. Block and iron. Blocking boards with lined grids are great for squares and rectangular pieces. When blocking, I use a “gumming” technique rather than full-on washing (submerging) because, it’s new, unsoiled. To gum, I wet a washcloth and sponge that on the garment or use a spray bottle to lightly mist, then shape and iron. When ironing, I set the temperature to cotton with steam and gently press the back side or put a linen cloth over the front and iron/press. I don’t always starch, but it’s fine to do so. Once the piece is moist and pressed, pin on blocking board or Styrofoam to dry. The idea is to have the piece dried in the proper shape and wetting/ironing enables you to shape it.
Note: Historically dry Arabic Gum was used, hence the word “gumming.” I think the mixture was something like 2 tsp of powder to 1 pint of boiling water to create a starch that would leave the piece crisp while variations of the mix (less water) would harden it to a plaster-like crocheted tree ornament. Today Arabic Gum is seen in diet supplements and glue or gelatin. For obvious reason, it’s fallen out of use as a starch.
14. Leave color as is or dye it. If dying, follow the directions on the manufacturer’s instructions. I’ve used RIT brand with some success; it was gray dye on ecru cotton thread and the color came out light gray, almost dusty blue. I prefer powder to liquid and like to combine colors for various results. There are recipes on the Rit website.
If you want multiple colors, see my post on watercolor crochet using fabric dye: https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2013/05/19/rit-fabric-dye-crochet-watercolor/
Or go natural with tea or onion skins.
A Vintage Pattern Shown Below:
Here are a few resources that I recommend:
1) The Antique Pattern Library. Best FREE online resource. This is where I learned about Irish Crochet. http://www.antiquepatternlibrary.org/
2) Best FREE Video Tutorials: http://www.youtube.com/user/Sheruknittingcom/videos
3) YouTube Channel titled Lace from Ireland. Several FREE tutorials from Amanda; an authentic Irish source. http://www.youtube.com/user/lacefromireland
4) YouTube Channel titled Ira Rott. Not a tutorial, but her work is amazing to watch. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0wMpQN4DlK0
5) A world-wide collaboration of Irish Crochet. This blog is maintained by Kim. It’s truly inspirational; a must see: http://irishcrochettogether.blogspot.com/2013/02/a-true-collaboration.html
6) For color and texture motifs, some pay/some free, check out Nicole Galen’s patterns at mypicot.com
7) Designer Victoria Belvet‘s motif patterns on Ravelry: http://www.ravelry.com/designers/victoria-belvet
8) Attend a seminar with Irish Crochet Expert, Maire Treanor. You can visit her website to see upcoming appearances.
9) Purchase video instructions or attend a skype web-shop with Larisa Chilton at Irish Crochet Lab. www.irishcrochetlab.com
10) Irish Crochet by Yhteinen Ystava
I had to throw this one in because anyone who knows me isn’t surprised that: I bought a Japanese book to learn Irish crochet. I only wish I’d discovered it sooner! The scarf on the cover is gorgeous, but there are a lot of motifs and purse patterns. Though the book is written in Japanese, a language I do not speak, charts follow a universal language. 😉
11) Duplet Magazine. The Russians & Ukrainians have forever changed the face of Irish Crochet; all that wonderful color and texture. Designers like Helga Irland, Miroslava Gorokhovich, Alisa Verbitskaya, Antonina Bobrova and many more have renewed interest in Irish lace the world over. In the same way that Ireland made the French guipure their own by creating shamrocks and thistles, so too have the northerners captured a culture. For amazing charted patterns, google Duplet Magazine .
These are some of actress Bette Davis’s costumes in Death on the Nile, fine examples of Irish lace: For more detailed information on Ms. Davis’s lace cap see: https://crochetthread.wordpress.com/2014/03/12/art-deco-boudoir-cap/
There is much work that goes into creating and updating tutorials such as this. If you find the information useful, kindly consider a donation to:
The Antique Pattern Library at http://www.antiquepatternlibrary.org/
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Good luck with your project and have a wonderful day.
– Cheers, Ann
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